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WC Appeals

Workers' Compensation Appeals

Workers’ Compensation appeals follow several different tracks at first, depending on whether you are appealing the denial of your claim for benefits, the rating of your permanent disability, the employer’s failure to pay medical expenses, or some other improper action by the insurer or employer.

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These different ways to appeal different decisions will be described in the decision documents you receive, but they are complex, and it makes sense to consult a lawyer with workers’ compensation experience if you receive one of these denials. Do it right away! The deadlines for appealing these decisions are normally short–often 30 or 60 days, and it’s wise to leave yourself and your lawyer plenty of time.

Appealing A Denied Claim:

If you get hurt on the job and file a claim for workers’ compensation benefits, the claims processor has 60 days to tell you whether the claim is accepted or denied. If your claim is not denied within 14 days, you should receive “interim time loss benefits,” which are 2/3 of your regular pay, tax-free, if your doctor releases you from work due to your injury. These interim benefits stop if the claims processor denies your claim. If your claim is denied, you need to file a Request for Hearing within 60 days of the denial. If you don’t appeal the denial, it becomes final, and you lose all of your rights. The hearing is before a workers’ compensation administrative law judge (ALJ), a lawyer who works for the state. If you prevail at the hearing, the employer must pay your attorney’s fees and costs for expert reports you incurred to support your case. These fees and costs do not come out of your compensation.

Appealing Claim Closure:

You will receive time loss benefits as long as your claim remains “open.” The claim stays open as long as you are not “medically stationary,” which means no more time or treatment is going to materially improve your condition. When you become medically stationary for a disabling claim, the claims processor must rate your condition for any permanent impairment and issue a Notice of Closure (NOC) that officially closes your claim and awards permanent impairment if any is due. (Your claim may also be closed if your work injury is no longer the major cause of your impairment.) If you don’t agree that your claim should be closed or you disagree with the permanent impairment award, you have 60 days from the date of the NOC to request the Workers’ Compensation Division conduct a reconsideration proceeding. If there is a dispute about how serious your medical impairment is, the ARU may appoint a “medical arbiter” from a random list of doctors in the specialty that relates to your impairment. The ARU will make its decision on reconsideration based on the medical arbiter report and any other information you or the employer have provided. If you don’t agree with the decision on reconsideration, you can request a hearing before an ALJ.

Appealing Denial Of Medical Care:

If your doctor recommends surgery or some other medical care that the employer or insurer thinks is unnecessary or unrelated to your work injury, they may deny paying for that medical care. You can challenge their decision by requesting a review with the Director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services. Depending on the nature of the denial of services, the Director will either refer your request to an ALJ for hearing to determine the medical services’ relationship to the work injury or appoint a different doctor to determine if the medical services are reasonable and necessary. That final decision is subject to review on the request of either party, by the Oregon Court of Appeals. An appeal of this kind of order does not go to the Workers’ Compensation Board.

Appeals Concerning Vocational Assistance:

Injured workers who cannot return to the jobs at which they were injured, but can still work, may be entitled to vocational rehabilitation. If a dispute arises over whether vocational rehabilitation is appropriate or whether the worker is eligible for it, the worker must request a review by the Director within 60 days of the action s/he challenges. The director issues an order resolving the dispute, and that order is subject to review by filing a request for an ALJ hearing within 60 days of the director’s order. The ALJ can reverse the Director’s decision only if it was clearly unlawful.

Appeals From ALJ Decisions:

The most common ALJ decision is called an “Opinion and Order” or “O&O.” It is the only decision in the workers’ compensation system that is based on a formal hearing before a judge, with witnesses sworn to tell the truth—the one time the injured worker gets to present the case to a live human. The ALJ’s O&O includes findings of fact and conclusions of law that lead to a result that is binding on the worker and the employer. If either party disagrees with the O&O conclusion, an appeal is to the Workers’ Compensation Board, a five member board of lawyers and citizens appointed by the Governor, can be made. The request for review must be filed with the Board within 30 days of the date of the O&O. There is no hearing on Board review. No new evidence may be presented. The parties, however, must submit briefs arguing whether the ALJ’s decision is correct and what the result should be, based on the evidence that was put before the ALJ. The Board considers the facts de novo, which means the Board weighs the evidence to see whether it thinks the ALJ made the right decision about which evidence is more persuasive. The Board also considers any legal error the ALJ may have made if the parties raise it.

Appeals To The Court Of Appeals.

If either party disagrees with a decision of the Board (or the Director in the case of decisions on the compensability of medical care), they can petition for judicial review in the Oregon Court of Appeals within 30 days after the date of the Board’s decision. The Board then files with the court the "agency record," consisting of the paper evidence and a transcript of the hearing before the ALJ. The parties have 15 days to note any inaccuracies in the record. Once the record is settled, the appealing party ("the petitioner") has 49 days to file the opening brief; then the party who won before the Board ("the respondent") has 49 days to file the answering brief; then the petitioner has 21 days to file a reply, which is the final brief. The Court of Appeals then schedules an oral argument, usually in Salem and usually within about six months after the last brief is filed. After oral argument, the court takes as long as it needs to to make a decision.

The court of appeals will not make a new decision on the facts, i.e. the court will not look at the evidence to see what testimony or medical evidence seems more persuasive. The court will reverse a factual decision of the Board only if there is no substantial evidence to support it, i.e. if a reasonable person could not have made the same decision the Board made based on the evidence that was before the ALJ and the Board. The court does make its own decision on any legal issues the parties raise, but it will not ordinarily raise legal issues on its own. If a party does not argue an issue, the court will generally not consider it. The court may affirm the Board’s decision without opinion, or it may write a decision deciding the case. There is no particular requirement for how long the court will take to issue its decision. In most cases the court issues a decision upholding the trial result without writing an opinion ("affirmed without opinion" or "AWOP"). That usually happens within a couple of months of oral argument. If the court decides to write an opinion, it hopes to do so within 6 months but, in complex or controversial cases, it may take a year or even two.

The losing party in the court of appeals can file a petition for review in the Oregon Supreme Court, which has 7 Justices. The Oregon Supreme Court then decides whether to take the case or not. The court considers a number of factors in making this decision, including:

  • whether the question is legal as opposed to a question of fact (the supreme court doesn’t usually fix factual mistakes)
  • the importance of the legal question, and whether it has been decided before
  • whether the legal question is likely to arise often or affect a large number of Oregonians
  • whether court decisions on the legal question are inconsistent or need clarification

If the supreme court allows review, the parties get to file further briefs, and the court hears oral argument. The court then issues its written decision. How long this takes depends on the complexity of the issue and whether there is disagreement in the court as to the result or the reasoning. Different Justices may decide to write concurring opinions, which agree with the result but differ as to the reasoning, or dissenting opinions, which disagree as to the result.

The Oregon Supreme Court is the final appeal in a workers’ compensation case. Because workers’ compensation is governed completely by state law, there are no federal issues, and, unless the law is applied in a way that violates the U.S. Constitution, there is no chance of review by the United States Supreme Court.

Workers' Compensation

How do I find a good doctor?

You should see if your primary care doctor will help you. However, many primary care doctors no longer deal with Workers’ Compensation. If that’s the case, look for a reputable doctor. Check reviews, ask other injured workers who their doctor was or check with a workers’ compensation attorney. Finding a good attending physician is the single most important thing you can do to get the care you need and benefits you are entitled to for your injury.

Do I have to follow up with the doctor that I am directed to at an urgent care clinic or the emergency room?

If you initially present for treatment at an urgent care clinic or the emergency room, you will often be directed to a follow up appointment. You are not obligated to follow up with that doctor but rather can choose to find another doctor of your choosing. Because your attending physician is so important to your claim, it is important to find a doctor you trust that is supportive of your claim.

Can my employer tell me where to get medical treatment?

No, it is against the law for your employer to direct your medical care. Instead, you are free to seek medical care with a provider of your choosing. If you don’t know where to go, your primary care doctor is often times a good place to start. If the employer has directed your care, alert the ombudsman for injured workers at 503-378-3351.

I’m doing modified work for my employer but what do I do when they give me work beyond my restrictions?

Unfortunately, this is a common problem. The best way to handle this is to have a copy of your doctor’s work restrictions with you at work. If you are asked to do work that is outside of your restrictions, politely point out that what you are being asked to do is outside your doctor’s restrictions. Make clear that you want to do modified work, but that you cannot physically do what is being asked of you. Talk with your attending physician about any problems you are having to see if the doctor can clarify or further restrict the work you are being released to. It is very important that your doctor and employer do not think you just don’t want to work. If the doctor thinks you are trying to shirk work, it creates real problems with your claim.

What if I get injured on the job but I’m not sure I want to file a workers’ compensation claim?

You should document an injury sustained on the job in writing and notify a supervisor immediately, even if you do not plan to file a workers’ compensation claim. While initially a tweak or a strain sustained on the job may not seem like a big deal, you protect your right to file a workers’ compensation claim in the future.

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WC Appeals

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Thanks & Praise


  • I practiced workers’ compensation law in Portland for over 40 years. 
    In 2012 I was retained by a 36-year-old man who sustained severe injuries, including the loss of both hands, as a result of having been electrocuted while working as a lineman for a power company in Oregon.  Since I was planning to retire in 2015 and the battle over the extent of his permanent disability was just beginning to heat up, I looked for another attorney to associate with and take over the case if necessary.  After speaking with Chris Frost, I concluded that she was the right choice and my client agreed. With her help, we were then able to achieve a very desirable result for our client in a relatively short period of time.  Chris and her staff have the reputation of being the best workers' compensation firm in Oregon and my client and I were fortunate to work with them.  I am pleased to recommend her.
    Doug Hagen, Portland
  • I practiced personal injury law in Portland for most of my nearly forty-one-year career.
    In 2012 I was retained by a 31-year-old husband and father of two who had been catastrophically injured - including being permanently blinded in both eyes - when he was run over by a piece of construction equipment in a work accident in Clark County, Washington.  In on-the-job accidents, a worker may not sue his employer for negligence and this was one of those cases where any case against other contractors on the job would be expensive, legally complex and technically challenging.  I decided, after conducting many hours of research and investigation, that a case could be made but it would be a long and expensive undertaking.  While continuing to work on the case, I began looking for help from another firm.  I talked with a number of lawyers but each of them thought that the case would be too expensive and difficult to take on. Then a trial lawyer friend of mine recommended Ray Thomas and his firm. I had known Ray for many years and called him up and gave him an overview of the case. He was aware of the difficulties but felt the case had merit, so he and his partner Cynthia Newton filed a Freedom of Information action and obtained access to all of the thousands of pages of documents for the construction project. The documents revealed that the other contractors on the job site had failed to provide a job site plan for safe movement of equipment and traffic, despite the fact that run over, backing and pinch point injuries and deaths are extreme dangers for workers on jobs like this one. Their partner, Jim Coon, filed the personal injury and loss of consortium lawsuit in both Oregon and Washington, and he fought to obtain the necessary legal rulings to go forward with the case. After many depositions and other preparation for trial, the case was finally settled shortly before trial, in February 2017, in a confidential settlement that included satisfaction of a large Washington Labor and Industries lien.

    I believe that the work done by Ray, Jim, Cynthia and their staff was pivotal to obtaining an excellent result for our client, and also delivered the important message that job traffic control safety is important. Without their strong work it is unlikely that such favorable results would have been obtained.
    Doug Hagen, Portland
  • Thanks Chris and Aaron for the great work you did with my Workers’ Comp case.
    You handled everything so well, I was happy with the settlement amount and the turnaround time. I’m definitely referring people to you, you were great.
    Lily, Portland
  • When I fell at work
    and got a concussion, I was surprised by how many serious symptoms I was having. I had not known what a “mere” concussion can really do to someone. Then, to add insult to injury, my workers compensation claim did not go smoothly. Luckily, though, I called Swanson, Thomas, Coon & Newton, and spoke with Stephanie Bales, Christine Frost’s assistant. She was like a ray of sunshine for me: someone who listened to me, took me seriously, and made me feel as if there was someone out there ? besides my doctor ? who was on my side. That meant a lot to me.
    Margie, Portland
  • We had another lawyer
    who was retiring and told us we needed to find another lawyer. We talked with Chris who was the first person who actually took the time to sit down and talk to us about what was happening and explained how the workers’ comp system worked and helped us very much in deciding what to do about our case. Chris was amazing, and a fountain of information and we could tell she really knew what she was talking about.
    Cheryl and Jeff, Walla Walla, WA
  • I had a worker’s comp claim
    and was nervous about getting a lawyer, but I am glad I did. Chris and her staff were great about explaining things. They sorted out my time loss rate and got me a good settlement.
    Suzette, Portland
  • I am a registered nurse
    who had a very complex workers’ compensation case and had basically lost hope. Chris Frost took this case even though 5 years had already passed and there was a large volume of documentation to sift through. She was thorough and creative and won my case! Her staff was great to work with. I highly recommend Chris Frost to anyone needing help with a Worker’s Compensation matter.
    Connie, Eastern Oregon
  • My name is John Gray
    and as a former and extremely satisfied client of Swanson Thomas Coon and Newton I would like to briefly convey my experience. The firm has represented me from the onset of my Work place accident, through the hurdles of the Oregon Worker’s Compensation system, Third Party Liability, all the way to Social Security Disability. The specialized representation I received has made my life better in too many ways to share. My education by my attorneys on all the pitfalls of each claim type and area, meant knowledgeable communication by myself and my attorneys, resulting in a positive resolution on all counts.
    John W. Gray Jr
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